Un análisis numérico de inclusión financiera y pobreza

Autores/as

  • Isaí Guízar Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey.
  • Claudio González-Vega The Ohio State University, Departamento de Economía Agrícola, Ambiental y del Desarrollo
  • Mario J. Miranda The Ohio State University, Departamento de Economía Agrícola, Ambiental y del Desarrollo.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18381/eq.v12i2.4857

Palabras clave:

Inclusión Financiera, Crédito, Depósitos, Pobreza, Adopción Tecnológica

Resumen

La inclusión financiera per se no es capaz de aliviar la pobreza, pero servicios financieros (crédito y depósitos) eficientes facilitan la adopción de tecnologías de producción avanzadas, que generan mayores ingresos esperados. Proponemos y resolvemos modelos dinámicos, estocásticos, de horizonte infinito, que muestran que la inclusión en el mercado de depósitos (o de crédito) no garantiza mayores ingresos entre las poblaciones más pobres. Identificamos niveles iniciales de riqueza (umbrales de consumo) donde los hogares no demandan depósitos (o no disminuyen sus niveles de endeudamiento). La ausencia de demanda de servicios de depósito (o el uso del crédito sólo para estabilizar consumo) impide que la inclusión financiera impacte los ingresos del hogar. Cuando el umbral de consumo es rebasado, la riqueza del hogar todavía debe aumentar hasta alcanzar el umbral adopción. Durante esta transición, los servicios financieros son una herramienta de administración de riesgo. Cuando el nivel de riqueza es suficientemente alto, en el umbral de adopción, el depósito acumulado (o el crédito) es utilizado para invertir en tecnologías más avanzadas. Esto tiene implicaciones en el diseño de políticas de inclusión financiera para diferentes poblaciones meta. La inclusión financiera es necesaria, pero no suficiente, para el alivio de la pobreza. 

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Publicado

2016-01-19

Cómo citar

Guízar I., González-Vega C., & Miranda, M. J. (2016). Un análisis numérico de inclusión financiera y pobreza. EconoQuantum, 12(2), 7-24. https://doi.org/10.18381/eq.v12i2.4857